Respuesta de frecuencia y direccionalidad

Tomado de un interesante análisis de la Universidad de Princeton. Uno ve una cosa por fuera, escucha o imagina escuchar otra y resulta en la medición algo distinto muchas veces a lo que creemos escuchar, pero en todo caso ¿A tí como te gusta? Ya lo decía un viejo conocido "el audio no es un saber, es un sabor" y sí, bastante hay de ello. 

















Fte: https://www.princeton.edu/3D3A/Directivity.html

Estupendo sitio, directorio-museo

https://www.preservationsound.com

Preservation Sound

HI-FI IN MEXICO 1955 revista AUDIO




A two page article from AUDIO magazine circa 1955.  Consider this article in comparison to “Japan Goes Hi Fi.”  How differently these two countries have developed since these pieces were written.   Both certainly became manufacturing powerhouses, but Mexico has been much less able to keep the profits from those operations in their country.  I have owned plenty of audio-objects made in Mexico (Fender guitar amps come to mind) but I have personally never seen a Mexican hi-fi brand.  Anyone?    Also: please note: this article is presented for historical reference only; I do not endorse the political/ethnic generalizations and characterizations that author makes.
fte: https://www.preservationsound.com

Audio analógico: Histórico de patentes e inventores


Image result for old turntable


No. Year Inventor Company An excerpt of the Claim made..............
200521 1878 Edison NA "Phonograph or Speaking machine (as it stands on drawing, but patent front page titled ""Improvement in Phonograph or Speaking Machines""). His other patents on phonograph: 201760(Speaking Machine), 227679(Phonograph), 386974(Mechanical improvement with motor), 400650 (Collapsible Blank), 414761(Wax Blank), 430278(cutting edge and reproducing stylus), 430277, 437425, 437497, 453741, 454941, 484583(Cutting-Tool), 499879, 500208(Magnetic damping of cantilever), 513095, 605667, 652457, 655480 etc."
341214 1886 Bell NA Recording and Reproducing Speech and other Sounds. Disk with spiral groove type ""phonogram"", but commercial embodied model was wax cylinder type ""Graphophone"" see 341288 invented by Tainter. Also 341212,341287(magnetic disk recording), 374133(paper cylinder), 375579, 380535, 385886, 385887(Graphophonic Tablet), 421450, 428646, 506348. "
534543 1895 Berliner US Gramophone Company Gramophone (Disk). His older patent 372786(1887) for Gramophone (horizontal recording) was cylinder type. Disk type Gramophone was invented by W. Suess: US Patent No.427279(1890) and assigned to Emile Berliner though Berliner in 382790(1888) already proposed solid resisting material (wax) coated on plate or cylinder. Also 548623, 564586, 637196, 637197, 689349 etc"
655557 1900 Johnson NA "Sound Recording and Reproducing Machine. Also 624625, 655556, 951127 about sound-box. Johnson was founder of Consolidated Talking Machine Company in 1900 which became Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901. Victor Talking Machine Company was created by merger and reorganization of two existing companies: Emile Berliner's Berliner Gramophone Company, which produced disc records, and Johnson's Consolidated Talking Machine Company, which produced machines for playing disc records."
683615 1901 Aylsworth National Phonograph Company in New Jersey Method of duplicating phonographic records
0012096 1902 Macdonald American Graphophone Company in District of Columbia Sound-Record [making of cylinders from matrix mold]. His patent 682992(1901) is reissued as RE012096. Also 1022100 about re-pressing (recyling) disk sound records
736773 1903 Petit The International Phonograph & Indestructable Record Company in UK. "Method of forming metal matrices and duplicating Sound-Record Cylinders [by Electrodepositing metal on master record]. Also 657956, 666,937 & 750119 about celluloid cylinder. Ademor Napoleon Petit worked also for Edison."
736948 1903 Emerson American Graphophone Company "Stylus or Needle for Sound-reproducers. Long life needle made of hard small diameter rod core surrounded by or embedded in soft material. In 1915 Emerson started Emerson Phonograph Company for producing his label ""Emerson Record"". "
739318 1903 Johnson Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey Sound-Record [Label pressed to record together with pressing the disc in heated condition].
749092 1904 Petit NA Double-Faced Sound-Record. In 1904 Odeon produced double-sided records. Some early Odeon labels refer to this patent.
763903 1904 Jones American Graphophone Company "Sound-Recording Apparatus. Cutting tool for lateral-cut groove of uniform depth consists of spoon-formed cutting stylus, advance pin (to regulate the depth of groove to be cut) and air-blast nozzle (contrary to modern suction nozzle). Basic recording method is almost established in this mechanical (sound-box) recording era."
782375 1905 Aylsworth New Jersey Patent Company "Composition of making duplicate phonograph-records (cylinders). Mixture of metalic soap as stabilizer, carnauba as wax, lampblack as pigment etc."
783420 1905 Emerson American Graphophone Company "Production of Quasi-Original Sound Records (duplication of matrix for lateral-cut disks). Also 785316 about unique duplicating method: recording on inner wall of cylinder and ""nurling""=knurling blank cylinder by rolling reversal matrix."
879363 1908 Cheney Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey "Die-Plate for Stamping up Sound Records. Cheny invented 655195(1900): Gramophone Sound-Box for The National Gramophone Compnay in New York. In another patent 915936(1909), Cheney proposed unique groove and forked stylus to trace two V grooves at once (sound is recorded at land). "
936976 1909 Berliner NA Multi-track (for example triple-track spiral) sound grooves with lead-in markings
996625 1911 Edison New Jersey Patent Company Phonograph-Reproducer (Ball Bearing Needle)
1041983 1912 Edison "Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated" Phonograph-Stylus of crystallized boron.
1062579 1913 Aylsworth "Edison, Incorporated" Talking Machine (Vacuum suction turntable for thin flat flexible disc record)
1080924 1913 Owen Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey Stylus for sound-reproducing machine. Elliptical tungusten stylus
1110428 1914 Edison New Jersey Patent Company Process of forming phonograph styli (Diamond Stylus Tip). Hard record material such as Phenoric resin was experimented by Aylsworth so that there was a need for making hard stylus tip.
1146388 1915 Aylsworth New Jersey Patent Company Process for making sound records (record made of fusible Phenol resin etc)
1212692 1917 Ruckgaber NA Speed-Regulator for Phonographs (Electric Motor regulating with eddy current disks)
1234450 1917 Edison New Jersey Patent Company Celluloid Record-Blank. Also 1248468. Mainly cylinder type though in patent 1234451 Edison indicated disk type mold.
1246651 1917 Petit NA Record for Talking Machine. Lateral cut record with new groove configulations (the walls of groove merging smoothly into the surface of the record). Also 1246652 about cutting tool for sound-recording machines.
1251565 1918 Pathe NA Talking Machine. Improving means for supporting sound box.
1251851 1918 Wickes Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey Molding-Press. Also 941291: Apparatus for making sound-records for talking machines (Molding Die)
1286259 1918 Edison New Jersey Patent Company Means for recording sound. Multi-sound sources received through horns are electrically mixed & recorded on Single Record Blank.
1290712 1919 Capps Pathe Freres Phonograph Company in New York Electric-Motor Phonograph
1291398 1919 Capps American Graphophone Company Talking Machine. Universal joint between tone-arm and tone-tube. Also co-inventor of 1293489
1353522 1920 Emerson NA Laminated (multi-layered) discs.
1358135 1920 Capps Pathe Freres Phonograph Company in New York "Phonograph-Reproducer. Sound Box usable for both vertical & lateral records: projecting arm linked to stylus arm. Also 1324643:Adjustable Sound Box. Capps invented 570378-1896 (Spring Motor) for The National Phonograph Company, 727921-1903(Automatic Sound Recorder) & 783420 for American Graphophone Company, 1836153-1931(Stylus Holder) for Columbia Phonograph Company, 2187512-1940 (cutting stylus) etc. Almost 50 years engaged in recording industry from the beginning."
1368745 1921 Hewitt Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey "Method of making record tablets. Various groove configurations seeking for standardization of lateral recording [the method of reforming any metal master record after recording is indicated: lapping, brushing, polishing, burnishing the surface of master or reforming the sharp corner of groove by spinning stylus in order to reduce pinch effect]."
1372992 1921 Beadle Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company Apparatus for pressing up Sound-Records and the like.
1396412 1921 Eldred The Commercial Research Company Process of making styli and products thereof (Tungusten stylus).
1481743 1924 Roberts Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company Method and Apparatus for pressing disc sound records without the aid of heating and cooling mediums. Related patent 1307812(1919) by Errickson: Columbia disclaims patent of Errickson partially.
1516595 1924 Frely "Societe des Establissements GAUMONT in Paris, France" Electrical Reproducer for Phonograph. Previous patent 1384295(1921)
1535538 1925 Maxfield "Western Electric Company, Incorporated." Vibratory System (Electric Recording System; application not limited to phonograph)
1576642 1926 Bishop The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company in Delaware Molding Die
1606744 1926 Bodine Dictaphone Corporation Acoustical Device (cylinder record cutting & reproducing). Dictaphone started as producer of dictation machine esp. for recording telephone and later produced various machines in timely formats (wax cylinder/plastic belt/magnetic tape etc).
1637082 1927 Maxfield "Western Electric Company, Incorporated." "Sound Recording Method (extended play time, no mention of specific 33.33rpm. He indicated 36-40rpm for synchronising motion picture)"
1649847 1927 Nightingall NA Means for recording sounds. Heated cutting stylus for cutting harder material than soft wax blank so that such recording without electro-plating and pressing can be repeatedly reproducible.
1661539 1928 Maxfield Western Electric "Phonograph System (Recording chain including transmitter=microphone capable of picking up 80-8,000Hz, amplifier, loud speaker=monitor and recording head with advance ball for lateral grooves)"
1663884 1928 Harrison Western Electric "Device for the transmission of vibratory energy (Basic technology for electric recording and reproducing) Also 1645139, 1628666 and 1709571 etc."
1669170 1928 Nicolson "Wired Radio, Inc." Damped Phonograph Appratus (Piezo-electric element and vibration-damping material)
1677806 1928 Weinberger Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Delaware Electric Phonograph Circuit (Phonographs in connection with radio receiving circuits) Also 1957512 Reproducer with superaudible frequency: Weinberger proposed grooves with high frequency carrier of AM for broadcasting phonograph playback sound directly.
1711551 1929 Sykes NA Reproducing and Recording of Sound [Electric Phonograph] Also 1743251 Means for recording sound, 2113907 pickup, 2621260 Electric Phonograph(Cylinder) etc"
1713039 1929 Espenschied American Telephone and Telegraph Company "Phonograph Recording and Reproducting (Application filed Nov. 15, 1919). The methods of reducing noises (by pre-emphasis on recording) or distortions (by compensation with opposite distortion on recording or reduroducing) are indicated. Also 1661793 & 1685913 "
1713195 1929 Round "Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, England" Gramophone-Record-Cutting Device and the like. 1974895 (Reproducer) was assigned to RCA in USA
1719339 1929 Mittel Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey "Talking Machine-Record. Apparatus for transfering sound from cylinder record to disc record. ""It is known that a record upon wax cylinder gives in some respects more faithful reproduction of the recorded sounds than a record cut upon a disc, and the proposal has been made..to transfer...from the cylinder to a disc...From the wax disc a matrix is made in the usual or any suitable way and from the matrix a number of records can be pressed."""
1733608 1929 Knox Bell Telephone Laboratories Phonograph Needle (small and light weight stylus tip made by electroplating method: thin coating of nickel stripped from conical mandrel)
1756966 1930 Alden The Alden Manufacturing Compnay Electromagnetic Pick-up
1767610 1930 O'Learly NA MC Cartridge
1782781 1930 High Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company Reproducing Device (Simple Mechanism: diaphagm in sound box is changed to electric transducer)
1783044 1930 Kellogg General Electric Company (GE) "Reproducer. Also 1614133 In 1925 E.dward W. Kellog and Chester Rice developed coil-driven (dynamic) paper-cone speaker. Later when GE transferred their radio and allied work to RCA, Dr. Kellog also went to RCA."
1792554 1931 Thomas NA Electromagnetic Instrument (esp. pick-up for vertical-cut of the finely grooved type) Also 1804961, 1958386(pick-up for lateral-cut & vertical-cut record), 1980888 & 1992727 etc. 1992727 was assigned to ATT. His early patents: 1595978(1926) & 1745776(1930) about pickup switchable between mechanical diaphragm (Sound Box) & electrical pickup, 1598895 & 1630642 about electric reproducer, 1625918 about Electric Pronograph, 1656712 phonograph connected to telephone receiver. 2031865-1936 (System and apparatus for recording and reproducing sound) was assigned to RCA."
1792859 1931 MITCHELL Columbia Phonograph Company Sound Recording Apparatus. Also 1944258 about Sound Reproducing Instrument
1799799 1931 Jones Bell Telephone Laboratories "Sound Reproducer (for playing soft wax records). Jones invented 1746730, 1812634, 1918972 etc about Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. 1531252(1925) Electric Reproducer assigned to Wired Radio Inc."
1816447 1931 Sumner The Calco Chemical Company Shellac Composition (Shellac31.5% Induline base 1.5% Filler67%)
1816906 1931 Jones Bell Telephone Laboratories "Electromagnetic Device. ""a four-pole magnetic structure and coil are sealed in an oil filled casing by a flexible diaphragm. T-shaped armature supported by the diaphragm vibrate with it as the stylus flexes the diaphragm about its diameter"". "
1817094 1931 Moore "Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated" Production of Phonograph Styli (lapping machine for making diamond stylus of small radius). There is description about vertical-cut fine groove (for example 450 threads per radial inch). The minute record groove was first experimented around 1930 for vertical-cut records.
1817787 1931 Thomas Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Delaware Magnet System for converting electrical into mechanical energy or inversely [Laminated pole pieces]. Another patent 2108275(1938) by Roelof Vermeulen and Arend Thomas was assigned to Philips in Netherlands
1823533 1931 Diehl Diehl Manufacturing Company in New Jersey Phonograph Turntable (center-driven by induction motor with worm gear and governor: platter spindle separated from driving spindle so as to be isolated from mechanical and electric noises)
1835073 1931 McClatchie NA "Magnetic Pickup. Also 1830800, 1830801 & 1835072 etc.
1858016 1932 La Rue RCA Plural-Member stylus or the like. Stock material (tungsten rod) is inserted and fused together into shank
1866403 1932 Elmer Bell Telephone Laboratories Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer Arm (consideration on lateral/vertical inertia and anti-skating device with spring)
1915357 1933 Fernberg Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey Means and Method for pressing talking machine record [mold].
1916703 1933 Payne Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey "Electromagnetic Acoustic Device. In 1929 as a result of the 1929 stock market crash, Victor Talking Machine Company merged with Radio Corporation of America to become RCA Victor."
1918972 1933 King Bell Telephone Laboratories Phonograph Reproducer (MC type)
1927158 1933 Edison "Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated" "Electrical Sound Reproducing Apparatus. Pick-up applicable without any adjustment for either ""lateral"" or ""hill-and-dale""records"
1928169 1933 Clark Columbia Graphophone Company in UK Electric Sound Recorder. In 1931 Gramophone Company and Columbia Graphophone Company merged and formed Electric and Musical Industries (EMI).
1932889 1933 Groff Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. Record (composition: copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate etc). In 1920 Union Carbide established Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation. Also refer to 2335986(1943 Vinyl Resin Phonograph Record). 1956837(1934) by Schmidt indicated application of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Aldehyde Condensation on record. 1997489(1935) by Hermann etc in Germany indicated various examples of polymerized vinyl alcohols.
1933400 1933 Victor NA Pick-up Device (Auto-offsetting tracking arm)
1947164 1934 Morrison Bell Telephone Laboratories Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. Also 1784845 about needle.
1960007 1934 Harrison Bell Telephone Laboratories Phongraph reproducers for Vertical Recordings (esp. wax so that light vertical pressure less than 5g is intended). Also 2033284 (attachment to convert hill-and-dale reproducer to lateral reproducer)
1963673 1934 Patino NA Reproducing Arm (Auto-offsetting device by pulley)
1981793 1934 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories Sound Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. Light tracking force 10g. Analysis of effective mass and stiffness etc.
1985005 1935 Wiebusch Bell Telephone Laboratories Vibration Translating Device (Recording device using moving coil and damping plate and viscous damping medium between the diaphragms).
2018471 1935 Russel Bell Telephone Laboratories Electroplating upon metallized surface
2018496 1935 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories Recorder Stylus (suitable for use of hill and dale type) Also 1918271: Sound Recording and Reproducing System
2024271 1935 Blumlein Columbia Graphophone Company in UK Moving Coil Electromechanical Device (sound recording and reproducing).
2025388 1935 Henning Bell Telephone Laboratories Sound Reproducing System: L/V two channels from single groove
2027168 1936 Harrison Bell Telephone Laboratories "Vibration Translating Device (reproducer with double moving coils). Also 2027169 & 2133815 for hill and dale or lateral type of recordings, 2031948 Damping Device, 2105916 Sound Reproducing System."
2032194 1936 Wiebusch Bell Telephone Laboratories Vibration Translating Device (MC type reproducer for hill-and-dale records). Analysis on mechanical and electrical circuits to compensate frequency responses.
2034872 1936 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories Phongraph reproducer (MC) for Lateral and Vertical Recordings
2037165 1936 Pollard Bell Telephone Laboratories "Vibration Translating Device (single moving coil) for hill-and-dale-recording. Also 1990548, 2038216 about the support of recording head by stream of air instead of ""advance ball"" since ""the mechanical disturbances caused by the advance ball as it slides over the wax is now audible in finished records and often predominant in original recordings""."
2055187 1936 Vieth Bell Telephone Laboratories Phongraph reproducer (MC) for Lateral and Vertical Recordings
2093540 1937 Blumlein EMI=Electric and Musical Industries in UK Sound Transmission including Stereophonic/Electric Recording & Reproducing System.
2114471 1938 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories Sound Recording & Reproducing System (45/45 degrees stereophonic groove and equipment)
2133596 1938 Thompson NA Feed Mechanism for disk recording machines. Later patents 2200866, RE22183, 2213936, 2222342, 2239042, 2250242, 2354558, 2357033, 2369087, 2369088(Equalising), 2441651(Recording Head), 2464064 etc were assigned to the Sound Scriber Corporation. Early patent 1637165(1927) was assigned to The Bristol Company."
2139916 1938 Seeley NA Sound Recording and Reproducing System [Idea of equlization with pre-emphasis on recording and de-emphasis on reproduction to obtain flat response]
2141584 1938 Wittander NA Sound Reproducing & Recording Apparatus
2148796 1939 Barbieri Amperite Company Phonograph Pickup (Improvement of response at low frequencies)
2161489 1939 Yenzer Bell Telephone Laboratories Vibratory System (Recording System: driving coil and feedback coil incorporated into vertical recording head). Relative patent 2162986(cutter amplifier) by Wiebusch
2173051 1939 Woolf Film Recording Corporation in New York "Recording Head and Process of Recording. Recording on film with stylus. Also 2173050. Related patent 2188687 by Lohn, 2154589 by Vermeulen etc."
2174156 1939 Guedon RCA "Arm balanced by spring tension. Also 2254844 about turntable mechanism with variable speed, 2192998 about pickup "
2174720 1939 Edwards Aluminum Company of America Aluminum Record Blank coated with Ricinoleic Acid [for embossing]
2187512 1940 Capps Recording Stylus.
2238863 1941 Norton Dictaphone Corporation "Translating Device (for recording & reproducing on record cylinder). Also 2110092 Commercial Phonograph, 2057621 Dictating Machine."
2240918 1941 Vermeulen RCA Device to convert electrical into mechanical energy or inversely (Moving-conductor type pickup to be connected to transformer. cf RCA Inductor Microphones)
2242983 1941 Thompson Philco Radio and Television Corporation "Photoelectric Phonograph. Also 2316113, 2359808 & 2399585 by Thompson and 2348660 by Stephan. Similar method was already shown in 1578645(1926) assigned to Western Electric, 1768273(1930) assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1793403(1931), 2063225, 2088960, 2191026 etc."
2247640 1941 Nielsen Cinaudagraph Corporation Reproducer (MC type)
2247651 1941 Carson RCA Phonograph (Floating System by Coil Springs)
2247924 1941 Saliba Presto Recording Corporation Automatic Equalising System for Recording on Disk Records.
2251204 1941 Reid The Crosley Corporation in Ohio Bi-radial stylus tip. Also John Reid invented universal reproducing stylus (2584922-1952) for Avco which bought Crosley in 1945.
2269267 1942 Hunter RCA Phonograph Records (made of Vinyl resin). Also 2206636(1940), 2217170(1940) etc
2284744 1942 Kellogg RCA Sound Recording. Improvement of vertical cut records: forerunner of tracing simulator. Also 2122207(1938) & 2219930(1940)
2286494 1942 Lynn RCA Sound Translating System. Also 2379707: Audio-Frequency Compensator Circuit in consideration of high frequency loss due to groove radius: High frequency boosted in inner groove radius and reduced in outer groove radius to obtain flat response. [Inner start & 33.3rpm transcription disk]
2290057 1942 Lindenberg Fairchild Sound Recording and Reproducing Mechanism. Moving Coil System. Also 2792456
2310049 1942 Albersheim Western Electric Sound Record and Reproducing System. His proposed exponential curved V groove suitable for lateral recordings to reduce pinch effect. Also 2310048 about vibration translating system
2320416 1943 Dally Webster Electric "Stylus for Reproducers. Also 2160793, RE22371,2261616, 2313324 & 2348526 about crystal pickups, 2222552&2346733 about Tone Arm, 2145389 about Arm and pickup, 2197967 about Sound Reproducing Apparatus (Arm coupled with pickup and amplifier circuit), 2379282&2412718 Recorder."
2320429 1943 Hasbrouck RCA "Signal Recording and Reproducing System: compensating the loss of high frequencies due to groove radius [Inner start & 33.3rpm transcription disk]. Also 2311385 (combination of hill-and-dale operation and lateral operation is made possible by switching connection on transformer), 2280763 (phonograph apparatus, piezoelectric pickup with cantilever+stylus made from tungsten wire)"
2326280 1943 Bauer Shure Brothers "Translating Device (Piezoelectric Element=Torsion Bar Form) Also 2381861, 2455913 & 2461475(stylus arm) and 2583289 etc"
2330801 1943 Abbot Physicists Research Tracer Mechanism for Investigating Surface Irregularities
2347347 1944 Yenzer Bell Telephone Laboratories Vibration Translating Device for hill and dale or lateral type of recordings
2350490 1944 Berliner NA Sound Recording Apparatus (The feed screw of Recording Head is driven by the centre of turntable)
2367846 1945 De Sart United Acoustigraph Corporation "Sound recording & reproducing Apparatus. Patents 2077388, 2094201, 2107050 etc by Bender assigned to same company use a strip of film as recording medium."
2369676 1945 Pierce NA "Electromechanical Conversion-Device (Improved Reproducer). Also 2239717 etc. Frederick Vinton Hunt (1905-1972), a professor at Harvard University about acoustics, wrote together with his colleague J.A. Pierce: ""On Distortsion in Sound Reproduction from Phonograph Records"" J.A.S.A 1938, a monument paper simulating various phonograph distortions. W. D. Lewis and F. V. Hunt, ""A Theory of Tracing Distortion from Phonograph Records,"" J.A.S.A. 1941. These researches led to the development of criteria that eventually made possible the long-playing record."
2373181 1945 Fleming Transducer (Phonograph pickup for lateral-cut records)
2379782 1945 Bobb Philco Radio and Television Corporation Phonograph Pickup (MC type similar to cutter head) with peculiar suspension suitable for lateral & hill-and-dale movements. Also 2386089. 2410329(1946) with powdered iron core by Albright is also related to this pickup.
2383994 1945 Smith "National Company, Inc., in Massachusetts" Phonograph Pick-up. Previous patent 1915804(1933)
2384253 1945 Jearum "Cutting, Grinding or Polishing Machine for Diamonds or other stones and the like (showing machine tool for making elliptic tip). Also see 671830-1901 & 835964-1906 by Loesser about Machine for Sawing Diamonds"
2391784 1945 Johnston The Gray Manufacturing Company "Sound Recording and Reproducing Machine. AUDOGRAPH is recording from inner to outer with constant groove speed like CD using soft vinyl disc sandwitched between two wheels. Also related patents 2410607, 2563860, 2628842& 2740633 etc."
2400953 1946 Roys RCA "Method of and System for Recording Audio Frequency Waves. Also 2475200 about signal recording appratus, 2491215 about recording head with advance ball"
2406597 1947 Faus General Electric Company (GE) Electric Pickup (MC type). Faus also invented 2415681(VR type) for GE.
2416082 1947 Balmer The Sound Scriber Corporation "Hum-less Electrodynamic Pickup (lateral MC pickup) Also 2542457. Newspaper ""The Tech"" dated February 7, 1950 titled ""Churchill Repairs English Language""indicating Churchill's misuse of ""me"" instead of ""I"" reports that Winston Churchill dictates his memoirs on the dictating machine of the Sound Scriber."
2422817 1947 Baker NA "Pickup with reed of magnetic material. Also RE23327(1951) Damper-less type (suspension/flexibility is obtained by reed) and 2581551, 2595561, 2622156 etc"
2423208 1947 Sinnet RCA "Electrostatic Pickup. Also 2465288(capacity type pickup), 2388578(Record Reproducing System including electric circuit) etc"
2426061 1947 Snepvangers RCA Electric Phonograph Pickup of the Capacity Type. In 1944 Snepvangers moved to CBS Laboratories for LP project and later in 1958 joined in Fairchild Recording Equipment Corporation.
2454425 1948 Bauer "Shure Brothers, Incorporated" Magnetic Translating Device. Previous patent 2356810
2464032 1949 Franz Dictaphone Corporation Stylus Construction and Method (Embossing sound track). Related patent 2534735(1950). Yerkovich's patent 2318828 (Phonograph) assigned to Dictaphone shows full details of dictaing machine using a loop of acetate film.
2469933 1949 Schwartz Decca Limited in UK Electromagnetic Pickup (T-shaped stylus assembly) =GB615421-615424. Another GB586900 by O'Brien (Americaner) is also shown on the metalic cover of Type D.
2473650 1949 Kalmus Zenith Radio Corporation Phonograph pickup with mechanical filter. Also 2531689: Electrical Translating Means and Variable-Inductor Transducer Therefor. Pickup Signal transmitted by antena and received by radio receiver - there was such trend since Philco also obtain similar patent 2441464(1948) from Albright.
2478712 1949 Rockwell Crosley Broadcasting Corp. in Ohio "Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup (one turn of coil=ribbon type?) In 1945, the Crosley interests were purchased by Aviation Corporation. The radio and appliance manufacturing arm changed its name to Avco, but the broadcast operations continued to operate under the Crosley name, until they adopted the Avco name in 1968."
2480907 1949 Dally Electrovox Company in New Jersey Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric).
2483196 1949 Gordon Bendix Aviation Corporation VR(variable reluctance) Cartridge
2485432 1949 Cornwell Magnetic Phonograph Pickup. Also 2456388, 2444336, 2508753 etc. Lionel B. Cornwell worked as chief engineer for Cinaudagraph Corporation.
2492186 1949 Royston American Type Founders Reproducer for hill-and-dale and lateral cut phonograph records. Also 2516919(1950): Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup
2510342 1950 Kilgour Avco Manufacturing Corporation "Pickup Mounting. The Aviation Corporation later changed its name to Avco Manufacturing Corporation, and then in 1959 to Avco Corporation. In 1986 Avco was purchased by Textron."
2511663 1950 Bachman GE Magnetic Phonograph Pickup. Also 2491794 & 2511664. After these inventions (1947) Bachman was invited to Columbia Broadcasting System for LP project.
2516338 1950 Olson RCA Feedback Control System for Recording Cutter and the like
2516565 1950 Guy GE Auto-offsetting pantograph arm similar to Garrard Zero series. See also later patent by Klein 2983517(1961)
2518861 1950 Burtch The Brush Development Company Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric). The Brush Development Company in Cleveland was engaged in applying piezoelectric device on underwater acoustics during 2nd World War. German-born Semi Joseph Begun invented piezoelectric pickup(2363497etc) & magnetic recorders(2048487&2048488) etc for this company.
2528826 1950 Saars USA as represented by The Secretary of Navy Recording Equipment having an adjustable advance ball
2530284 1950 Cook Frank L. Capps & CO. Inc. in New York Recording Stylus (detailed function of burnishing facet angles) Earlier patent 2187512-1940 by Frank L. Capps is almost standardised while this later patent about two step facets is not realised.
2531242 1950 Yenzer Bell Telephone Laboratories Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup (Lateral cutter head with feedback coil). In 2746130 Davis showed method of securing heating conductor to stylus applicable to Westrex Model 2A.
2534725 1950 Miller NA Electrodynamic Pickup having U-shaped Coil Holder
2543127 1951 Pickering "Pickering Associates, Inc." Magnetic Sound Reproducer having removable stylus assembly. Also 2538164 cartridge, 2545859 dual styli"
2547227 1951 O'Neal Philco Corporation "Phonograph Pickup. This patent tells the problems and difficulty of tracing on new ""microgroove"" records."
2551506 1951 Rockwell Crosley Broadcasting Corp. in Ohio Dynamic Balanced Arm with two spring coils. Also 2587529
2554209 1951 Miner GE Dual Stylus Phonograph Pickup for Multispeed Record Players. Also 2554208 about improvement of cantilever. 2748199, 2776342, 2820853, 3047676 & 3088000 by Dally. 2572712 by Fisher. Slide-in type 2820854 by Woodworth.
2554696 1951 Bruderlin NA Magnetic Phonograph Pickup Head with two pairs of pole pieces. Also 2388116
2564054 1951 Dreisbach The Magnavox Company Phonograph Pickup and Mechanical Motion Converting System Therefor. Also 2567105 (Crystal Pickup)
2573723 1951 McClain NA Phonograph Stylus of small effectuive tip radius
2584922 1952 Reid Avco Manufacturing Corporation Universal Reproducing Stylus. Analysis of differences of records between the past and present or between USA and England. Also 2686679
2591996 1952 Arentzen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) Moving-Coil Phonograph Pickup. Coil is wound vertically on elongated core which is supported with dampers on vertical axis. Coil windings and pivot were modified later by Anneberg etc as per GB700155(1953) & DE873757. There was rare stereo modification model: the cantilever has been fixed at a cube for special Cardanic transmission 'cross- coupler' which converts stylus deflection to channel-separated rotary motion.
2593633 1952 Umpleby "The Decca Record Company, Limited, London" Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup
2606254 1952 Sugden NA "Moving-Coil Sound Recording Head. Arnold Robinson Sugden started ""Connoisseur"" brand for consumer products."
2611038 1952 Graham RCA Sound recorder with Sound-Controlled-Stylus Feed (Variable Pitch)
2617894 1952 Arentzen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) Electrodynamic Recording Device.
2619440 1952 Lord EMI Gramophone Record (Record Composition)
2627416 1953 Schoemehl RCA Induction Heating of Recording Styli. Related patent 2628104 by Shardlow assigned to RCA
2629605 1953 Krisch NA "Phonograph Needle (ball bearing needle - mere fancy at the time, but now it can be embodied?) Related patent 2594759(1952) by Fischer"
2639156 1953 Ward GE Double-Twist Phonograph Stylus Assembly
2647753 1953 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System "Phonograph Pickup Mounting (proposing Inclined Arm Mounting for anti-skating: ""Since the tracking instability is greatest for the outmost sound groove, it is advantegeous to tilt the axis of rotation in a direction lateral of the arm in the position in which the arm engages the maximum diameter sound groove for which the phonograph is designed."") "
2650953 1953 Gunter Shure Method of assembling phongraph translating devices
2658763 1953 Roys RCA Phonograph Pickup Device and the like (Improvement on Masterson's patent 2560358 assigned to RCA)
2676806 1954 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System Arm Assembly (proposing viscous damping theory). His another patent 3622163(1971) Linear Tracking Arm and 3301565(1967) Suspended cartridge and Inclined Arm/Turntable Base for anti-skating
2681388 1954 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System Phonograph Pickup with styli alternatively used for LP and SP (Turnover type cartridge)
2689275 1954 Hansen NA Electrodynamic Pickup
2703343 1955 Snepvangers Columbia Broadcasting System Phonograph Pickup: Piezoelectric type
2716551 1955 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System Record Cutting Stylus Suspension (Advance Ball Damping Suspension to insure the cutting of grooves of substantially uniform depth)
2734748 1956 Parvin RCA "Disc Design for Compatible Center Holes: For playing on larger hole, the hub portion may be broken away within indentations."
2738385 1956 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System Sound Recording Apparatus (Automatic Variable Pitch Recording)
2742530 1956 Mayer The Astatic Corporation Stylus Removable Cartridges (plural styli on one cantilever)
2743478 1956 Harlow RCA Automatic Molding Apparatus. Also 2853737 These have good reference to previous patents since SP era. Also 3662051(1972)
2744212 1956 Baum NA Phonograph attachment for eliminating static electricity from records
2749131 1956 Kelly Cosmocord Limited in UK "Mechanical Coupling Device (Pickup Cartridge using bimorph piezoelectric plates) Also 2771514, 3089922. Related patents 2938966 by Spencer and 3067296 by Heinlein about piezoelectric element for stereophonic cartridge."
2752428 1956 Bauer Shure Click mounting of stylus holder on piezoelectric cartridges
2754372 1956 Weathers Weathers Variable capacity pickup. Also 2507188(1950)
2759732 1956 O'Neal Philco Corporation Phonograph Stylus (universal tip applicable for both coarse & fine grooves) Similar idea was already presented by Graupner and Gullner in Germany (German Patent 885163-1953: Universal-Doppelnadeln fuer normale und Microrillen-Schallplatten)
2772888 1956 Doncaster Columbia Broadcasting System Stereophonic Record Making (Monaural Two Faces synchronised)
2780680 1957 Jensen Webster Electric Transducer (using ceramic element) Also 2771513
2792456 1957 Lindenberg Fairchild Vibration Translating Device (Monaural Cutter driven by moving coil)
2819088 1958 Felix "Sears, Roebuck & Co." Tone Arm Construction for Phonograph (arm shape itself is amplifying sound mechanically without using diaphragm of sound box)
2819089 1958 Williams Dictaphone Corporation Recording Method using translating head and stylus (Recording on plastic belt)
2840644 1958 Klingener Sonotone Corporation Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric) Also 2717929
2847514 1958 Evans RCA Automatic Variable Pitch Control Apparatus for Disc Recorders
2848559 1958 Palo The Astatic Corporation in Ohio Universal Phonograph Pick-up Cartridge
2854529 1958 Williamson Ferranti Limited in UK Pickup Heads (moving-conductor type called also as ribbon type). This idea is not new (for example 1916162-1933 invented by Parker and assigned to Pacent Electric Company used U-shape copper strip as armature).
2858374 1958 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System Stereophonic Record using monophonic double faces (Also 2950116)
2858375 1958 Preston RCA Wide range dynamic phonograph pickup
2864897 1958 Kaar Hoffman Electronics Corporation Universal Pickup Head (Vertical/Lateral/Stereo by changing connection)
2875282 1959 Reiback NA Binaural Phonograph Pickup (L/V stereophonic type since this patent was applied in 1953 before 45/45 stereo era)
2879413 1959 Johannsen Sonotone Corporation Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric)
2881005 1959 Faillace Sonotone Corporation Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric)
2883478 1959 McConnell Electro-Sonic Laboratories Moving Armature Phonograph (MC type) Pickups. Also 3043920 (Permanent Magnetized Rotor on pivot)
2917590 1959 Stanton Stanton Improvement of Monophonic MI Cartridges
2934610 1960 Dieter Sonotone Corporation "Piezoelectric Stereo Pickups (various construction) Also 2849239, 2955170, 2955216. And much later patent 3952171(1976) to Micro-Acoustics"
2939464 1960 Guest BSR(Birmingham Sound Reproducers Ltd) Auto-changing mechanism. Also 3049354 for auto-return and re-set mechanism
2939716 1960 Bauer Shure Stylus turnover=two needles cartridge
2948783 1960 Scully NA Cutter (esp. Depth) Control Means for cutting recording grooves (Scully Automatic Recoding Machine had already variable pitch control)
2951915 1960 Pearson Sonotone Corporation Playback system for stereophonic records with mechanical rumble filter
2960759 1960 Bondley GE Method of manufacturing phonograph styli (special shape of shank base suitable for bonding diamond tips). His another patent 2992007(1961) about titanium shank for bonding a diamond tip with solder bond of granulated nickel.
2962561 1960 Neumann "TELDEC, Telefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH" Method and apparatus for dual sound track recording (Cutting head) Also 3014992(Cutting head) & 3390888 (Cutting stylus)
2963556 1960 Redlich TELDEC Apparatus for Sound Recording (Variable Pitch) Also 2977424 & 2792454
2965378 1960 Assie "Les Industries Musicales et Electrique Pathe Marconi, Paris" Gramophone Pick-ups [about resilient stylus arm suspension]
2967214 1961 Vanderlyn EMI=Electric and Musical Industries in UK Moving Coil Electro-Mechanical Transducers
2974961 1961 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System Phongraph Reproducer (silicone oil Damped Arm suitable for the use on a movable vehicle)
2976551 1961 Watts Cecil E Watts Gramophone Records Cleaning Machine
2983516 1961 Bauer Shure Transcription Tone Arm: Incorporating Dynamic Damping Theory developed by B.B. Bauer
2983796 1961 Marshall "The Garrard Engineering & Manufacturing Company Limited, Swindon, UK" Moving Coil Pick-ups for phonographs and the like
2984711 1961 Bayliff Decca London cartridges Gramophone Pickup (Stereophonic L/V matrix to comply with 45/45 system). Bayliff invented 4100371(Loudspeaker system with phase difference compensation) for Decca Limited
2993234 1961 Miura Tokyo Shibaura Elec (=Toshiba) Antistatic Record Disks
2993698 1961 Stanton Pickering Unipoise 194 Phonograph Pick-up Arm with one-point bearing.
3000005 1961 Moyer RCA "Off-Center Indicator [to check the concentricity of phonograph records and metal phonograph stampers]. In producing a stamper, the center hole is obliterated during the plating process: necessary to punch a center hole in each stamper anew. "
3005060 1961 Weathers NA L/V type variable capacitance cartridge to make applicable to any type of modulations(45/45 & L/V). In monophic era (1950), P. Weathers invented electrostatic pickup (US Patent 2507188)."
3013125 1961 Hollywood Columbia Broadcasting System Streophonic Recording: various ideas about amplitude, velocity limiter or expander for stereophonic recording system
3014992 1961 Angenendt Telefunken GmbH Dual Sound Track Transducer Head (Stereo cutting head)
3014993 1961 Narma Fairchild Recording Equipment Phonograph Pickup Cartridge: Sample of Moving Magnet
3020361 1962 Minter NA Electromagnetic Engraving Apparatus. J.B. Minter invented also 3067292: Stereophonic Sound Transmission & Reproduction (forerunner of CD-4 using FM technology)
3023459 1962 Cook NA "Method of manufacturing phonograph records (""microfusion"" method using pulverised resin instead of pre-mixed lump/biscuit/cake). His binaural records with two concentric grooves were produced in 1951- but similar was already invented by Dolittle of RCA (1817177 & 2126370) etc."
3028161 1962 Siebert General Dynamics Tone Arm Suspension and Balancing System. RA-498 by Stromberg-Carlson utilized viscous damping material in the trough of arm pivot suspension (forerunner to Decca/Keith Monks). His another patent No. 3025066 for Turntable PR-499
3040136 1962 Grado Grado "MC cartridges (Stereophonic & Monophonic). Vertical coil assembly in his another patent 3018336(1962) resembled to Ortofon Type A(2591996-1952) while this new patent had ""cross coils"" wound on a plastic cubic bobbin (magnetic? plug inside). "
3048667 1962 Jensen Jensen Industry Cartridge for Phonograph pickup (Electro-Mechanical Element=Piezoelectric?)
3051494 1962 Walton Cosmocord Limited in UK "Gramophone Pickups (Arm very similar to later patent 3167317 by Percy Wilson). John Walton worked also for The Decca Record Company in England and reported many articles to AES during '60 about ""stylus mass and elliptical points"" etc."
3051798 1962 Knudsen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) Device for the recording or reproduction of sound tracks.
3053943 1962 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System Phonograph Record Cutter (Stereophonic)
3055988 1962 Bauer Shure MM cartridge (originally monophonic cartridge) with offset around 18degrees at cantilever to be coupled with M12/M16 professional arms-see patent 2983516
3060280 1962 Wood Electro-Voice Stereophonic Mechanical Transducer (=Piezoelectric) Similar patent 3523690 by Vanderkoppel was assigned to Electro-Voice.
3060281 1962 Snepvangers Fairchild Recording Equipment Phonograph Pickup Cartridge: Sample of Variable Reluctance type cartridge with unique suspension. He invented capacity pickup and assigned many patents (2397888 &2417712& 2426061etc) to RCA. He worked also for CBS 1944-1957.
3062925 1962 Pritchard GE "Phonograph Pickup Cartridge and Replacement Stylus Therefor. Also 3015703, 3118978, 3219764 etc"
3067295 1962 Stanton "Pickering & Company, Inc." Various Stereophonic MI Cartridges
3075052 1963 Terry EMI=Electric and Musical Industries Limited in UK Method of making grooved records (Variable Pitch and Depth Control).
3077521 1963 Ahrens Shure Stereophonic MM (ELAC engineers in Kiel got German patent No. 1 105 628 in 1957 and its US patent was assigned to Shure). Also 3463889(1969) for Streophonic cartridge with detailed drawing about yoke-construction
3077522 1963 Gunter Shure Stereophonic pickup cartridge
3088742 1963 Alexandrovich Fairchild Recording Equipment Inside force cancelling device
3118977 1964 Olson RCA Multi-groove Stereophonic Sound Recording and Reproducing System
3129008 1964 Suzuki JVC Inside force cancelling device(spring) for arm
3133161 1964 Neumann Neumann Electro-Mechanical Transducer with negative feedback for the recording and reproduction of sound waves
3142729 1964 Davis Litton Systems Phonograph Reproducer (Twin moving coils). Westrex Corp was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Litton Industries since 1956 and the successor to Western Electric's cinema sound business unit.
3146319 1964 Stanton "Pickering & Company, Inc." Magnetc Cartridge with compensating pole piece (MM type).
3151221 1964 Pyke EMI=Electric and Musical Industries Gramophone Pick-ups (Variable Reluctance Type)
3167317 1965 Wilson NA "Tone Arm. Percy Wilson as the technical editor of the Gramophone wrote ""Needle-Track Alignment"" in 1924 and also designed record cleaning machine (based on which Loricraft etc made commercial models)."
3184242 1965 Capps "Capps & Co., Inc." Recording Stylus (special curved V form similar once proposed by Alberheim in 2310049-1943)
3184555 1965 Marshall Garrard Stereophonic Electrostatic Pick-up
3186029 1965 Joseph Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. [MGM] Machine for making Disk Phonograph Records
3186932 1965 Scott "Audio Matrix, Inc." "Apparatus for forming phonograph record masters, mothers and stampers "
3189353 1965 Grado Grado Record cleaning device for mounting on a record changer tone arm
3194896 1965 Redlich TELDEC Streophonic Transducer with adjustable feedback coils
3201432 1965 Hammond V-M Corporation Drive Yoke for Phonograph Pickups (Yoke for piezoelectric elements)
3201527 1965 Ahrens Electroacustic Gesellschaft (ELAC) Phonograph pickup for grooved records
3207857 1965 Poutot US Philips Electrodynamic Transducer (Ideas for stereophonic cutters or pickups)
3215439 1965 Lindenberg The Astatic Corporation in Ohio Compliant Phonograph Stylus Mounting (two styli on cantilever=stylus turnover for piezoelectric pickup)
3215440 1965 Wood "Euphonics Corporation, Puerto Rico" Phonograph Cartridge (Rotary lever exchanging cantilevers each with stylus for LP or SP).
3215785 1965 Palo The Astatic Corporation in Ohio Stereophonic Piezoelectric Pickup Cartridge
3216730 1965 Ogura NA Recording Needle and Method for making the same (bonded tip forming is shown in detail)
3218399 1965 de Vries "Ronette Piezoelectrische Industrie, Amsterdam" """Ronette"" type Piezoelectric Stereo Pickup. Also 3022384, 3136554, 3136555, 3,178520, 3514550, 3525528 etc. Also 2825763(1958) for Monophonic Piezoelectric Pickup"
3219351 1965 Shaper Dyna-Empire(EMPIRE) Tone Arm Lift by Magnetic force. Similar type was already invented by Kellog of RCA 2324214-1943
3229048 1966 Fox RCA Recording System for compensating expected distortions on playback. Related patent 2960568 by Leyton assigned to RCA : Tape Reproducing System.
3230318 1966 Engel Telefunken Transducer(Cutter/Pickup etc)
3231283 1966 Stanton Stanton Unipoise #200 Arm with one-point bearing pin: VTF adjustable by sliding the weight on the arm wand. His another patent 3309094 for Phonoghraphic Turntable Assembly
3243188 1966 Caddy Garrard Record Changing Mechanism
3243524 1966 Laux RCA "Phonograph pickup with resiliently loaded stylus beam (piezoelectric element is inherently stiff and heavy, hence beam is designed to have reduced mechanical impedance for better performance) Also 3102171"
3254897 1966 Holmes NA Tone Arm (Tangential straight arm extending from side)
3261925 1966 Smith "A. Bernard Smith Laboratories, Inc. in Ohio" Stereophonic Photoelectric Transducer (Semi-conductor Photoelectric Cell: germanium transistor)
3292935 1966 Cooper Decca Limited in UK Magnetic Anti-skating Mechanism (claim priority, application GB July 1962)"
3292936 1966 Grado Grado Elliptical stylus making from cone by cutting front and back faces
3294405 1966 Pritchard Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC) IM cartridge having removable stylus
3297831 1967 Stanton Stanton Magnetc Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup (New Construction of MM type).
3298059 1967 Sakamoto JVC Press Machine for Molding Records
3299219 1967 Madsen Bang & Orfusen (B&O) MMC(=Moving Micro Cross=Moving Iron) & MC with low moving mass. SP7/9 were plug-ins for B&O arm
3301565 1967 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System Phonograph Record Reproducing Apparatus (Inclined arm base & cartridge supension)
3315967 1967 Laufer Dual Gebruder Steidinger Antiskating Device (Spring and lever). Actual device applied on 1019 looks much refined/modified from original drawing.
3318603 1967 Motimer Garrard Inside force cancelling device (thrust bar and L-shape weight)
3328037 1967 Lehmann Dual Apparatus for measuring antiskating force in pick-ups
3329997 1967 Rand EMI=Electric and Musical Industries Apparatus for Automatic Production of Gramophone Records. Also 3264386
3351830 1967 Wilner Endevco Corporation "Piezoresistive Transducer. Also 3501732: Semiconductive Piezoresistive Transducer. Engineers (Wood and Grover) of Euphonics Corporation reported in AES Convention (Oct.1965):""In October of 1964 Euphonics Corporation announced the development of a new phonograph transducer utilizing ... Since the development of this silicon fiber by Endevco Corporation, several years of rigorious testing and use in the ..."" Later (1976) cartridge SDT-10 by Win Laboratories follows similar system. "
3356795 1967 Shaper Dyna-Empire(EMPIRE) Stereophonic Magnetic Phonograph Pickup . MM & IM cartidges
3360616 1967 Shiga Denon Stereophonic Ribbon Cartridge
3377439 1968 Rouy "Erie Technological Products, Inc." Binaural Piezoelectric Pickup
3383752 1968 Hukao Toshiba Method of preparing stylus from corundum (sapphire or ruby crystal). Crystalline orientation with respect to the direction of rubbing between stylus and record for extended life time of corundum tip.
3383474 1968 Kriebel Electroacustic Gesellschaft (ELAC) Electromagnetic pickup with exchangeable stylus assembly for phonograph records
3388912 1968 Shimoda Sony "Pickup Arm. Anti-skating mechanism by cam and lever with spring. Also 3492006 about the location of Lateral Balance Weight. Mr. Seisuke Shimoda from Toho Machine Co., Ltd which has been engaged in precision machining since 1947."
3390888 1968 Klemp TELDEC Recording Device (cutting stylus in consideration of VMA/VTA)
3393915 1968 Osborne The Wurlitzer Company "Two-Speed Phonograph Drive for ""juke boxes"". Also 3131800(1964) by Osborne for Coin Controlled Phonograph and 3734512 for Tonearm Assembly for Automatic Phonograph"
3399900 1968 Tsukamoto Satin cartridges "Dynamic Mechanism having a damper. Also 3142786(patented 1964, applied 1960) about round coil of aluminum ribbon wire (10x100microns) for MC cartridges [later models since M6-45 are said to have triangle coils]"
3402935 1968 Kitazawa Nippon Columbia (Denon) "Automatic Record Player Apparatus (""juke boxe"" or ""music box"")"
3403233 1968 Cooper NA Method of making grooved records with compensation for reproduction errors. Tracing Simulator/Compensator
3441688 1969 Shaper Empire MI Cartridges
3444335 1969 Walton NA Phonograph Pickup with de-coupling of the stylus mass (showing electrically equivalent circuit for mechanical piezoelectric element and damper)
3457374 1969 Redlich TELDEC Recording Method and Apparatus for compensating third order distortions. Tracing Simulator for 3rd harmonic distortion in addition to previous method (2nd harmonic distortion compensating upon recording).
3469040 1969 Shaper Empire Scientific Corp(EMPIRE) Variable Reluctance Cartridges
3479038 1969 Eisner NA Tangential Arm/Turntable floating bearing with pneumatic power from turntable motor air-pressure
3482061 1969 Grado "A-2 & BE (elliptic stylus), BT/R &BR(" "Stereophonic Cartridge (Piezoelectric type, the compliance of which is adjustable at user's end to match with tone arm mass)"
3484566 1969 Kuriyagawa Toshiba Disc Recording System with precompensation by successive differentiation
3486757 1969 Loescher Lenco A G Record Cleaning Device (Arm type: cleaning fluid is made of distilled water and detergent or distilled water and ethyl alchol=ethanol )
3490771 1970 Bauer Columbia Broadcasting System Sound Recording Method and Apparatus describing the method to reduce the difference between VMA and VTA by determining springback value and effect.
3494623 1970 Nesle "Firma Perpetuum Ebner, Fabrik fur Fein-mechanik und Elektrotechnik Steidinger & Co" "Arm with two coil springs (one for VTF, another antiskating). Antiskating Force is obtained simultaneously with tracking force by means of a synchronized cam. P+E merged into DUAL in 1971."
3497636 1970 Bayless NA Monaural-Binaural Phonograph with independent spaced styli
3503615 1970 Matsuda Denon Auto Players (starting point for electromagnetic control of arm) Also 3689079(1972) etc
3524950 1970 Konagaya Tokyo Shibaura Elec (=Toshiba) Stereophonic Photoelectric Pickup Device
3526690 1970 Bachman CBS Method and Apparatus for producing Phonograph Records
3526728 1970 Iga Matsushita=Technics Variable Reluctance Cartridge
3528127 1970 Damm Carl Lindstrom Gesellschaft in Germany Apparatus for the automatic production of Gramophone Records
3528665 1970 Klemp TELDEC Method and Apparatus for cutting a groove in the surface.
3531601 1970 Muttick Sonotone Corporation Phonograph Pickup Cartridge with selectively settable compliance. Also 3527900
3534968 1970 Puleston Bruce Diamond Corporation Elliptical Phonograph Stylus 0.7x0.2mil (forerunner to Van den Hul type with constant radius of curvature=edge. Included angle 60-65degrees and arcuate chord distance 0.9mil of radius 0.7mil for bottom in this patent)
3538266 1970 Cho Micro Seiki IM cartridge with magnet located behind armature (unique stylus holder knob was intended preliminarily for optimum stylus pressure)
3542972 1970 Braun NA Individual adjustable magnets for MM
3546399 1970 Stanton "Pickering & Company, Inc." Induced Magnetic Moving Iron Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with replaceable stylus assembly
3572724 1971 Rabinow RABCO "Linear Tracking Arm with servo-drive on spring suspension. In 1968 Rabinow formed the RABCO company to manufacture straight-line phonographs, and the company was later bought out by Harman-Kardon Corporation. His other patents 2915315(1959), 3129946, 3249361, 3249362, 3356372, 3390886, 3675932 etc."
3572725 1971 Murphy "Pickering & Company, Inc." Removable brush attachment on cartridge
3576955 1971 Obata Matsushita=Technics New armature assembly for MM: disc-shaped magnet of platinum-cobalt alloy. A pipe of magnetic conductor is provided to reinforce the coupling between stylus arm and the magnet and at the same time to increase equivalently the length of magnet and increase the magnetic moment of the magnet under vibration.
3610840 1971 Miller RCA "Stereophonic Phonograph Picup with single pad for piezoelectric element coupling, support and damping [Stylus Turnover Piezoelectric Type]. Also 3699268"
3627931 1971 Matsuda Denon MM Cartridge with E-shaped cores & flat magnet (for ex. thickness 0.5mmx 2mm square/diameter). Windings are wound on the centre leg of E-shaped core. Also multi-layered cantilever is shown.
3632886 1972 Scheiber
Quadrasonic Sound System. Matrix 4 channel surround. Also 3746792-1973(Multidirectional Sound System) & 3959590-1976(Stereophonic Sound System) & 5857016-1997(Space-mapping sound system) etc
3635622 1972 Wechsler "Capitol Records, Inc." Automatic Record Press
3645541 1972 Aikman SME Pickup Arms (Design quite different from any SME arms: side thrust is compensated by inclination of pivotal axis.)
3646279 1972 Stanton "Pickering & Company, Inc." Induced Magnetic Moving Iron Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with replaceable stylus assembly and one common pole piece
3654660 1972 Taylor Vacorec Phonograph Record Vacuum Cleaner. Also 3005223 & 3150401
3665123 1972 Ikeda "Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name ""GLANZ"")" IM Cartridge
3673354 1972 Oda Matsushita=Technics Semiconductor Stress Transducer (various drawings for armature constructions: some are too complicated so that the simplest is realized?)
3679843 1972 Cho Micro Seiki MC cartridge with V shape core for coils. MC-4100 is forerunner of detachable/replaceable stylus assy for MC system.
3682485 1972 Guha V-M Corporation Phonogram Tone Arm. Guha also invented later for Avnet=B.I.C.turntables and arms.
3683128 1972 Grado All GRADO cartridges since '70s "Flux-Bridging Streophonic Picup. Also 3694586(1972) toroidal armature, 3881073(1975), 4031336(1977) and 4174111(1979) cantilever anchor suspension"
3683248 1972 Kobayashi Matsushita=Technics Directly Driven Turntable. Later motors since 1971 have been much simplified (without skewed stator slot) in order to make winding the stator easy - see US Patent 3860843(1975)
3686471 1972 Takahashi Victor Company of Japan (JVC) "Discrete 4 Channel Recording/Reproducing System. Preceding Patent 3401237(1968):""Simultaneous Recording of Two Signals per Channel"" invented by Kenjiro TAKAYANAGI (famous inventor of TV in Japan) and assigned to JVC. Additional patent 3883699(1975) for system and 4033592(1977) for special cutting stylus."
3686939 1972 Fuchs Shure Stylus Tracking Force Gauge
3697087 1972 Takahashi Pioneer Automatic Record Player (repeat function with sub-motor for arm control)
3700829 1972 Anneberg Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) IM=VMS(Variable Magnetic Shunt) Cartridge: The armature acts as a variable magnetic load conveying stylus movements. Patent reissued in 1977 under RE 29232
3720796 1973 Honma Audio Technica AT-35X -- V shape magnets=VM (Japan patent application 42/53200 year 1967)
3722893 1973 Shimoda "Toho Machine CO., Ltd. " Tone Arm Mechanism. Also 4004817(1977). Seisuke Shimoda once invented patents 3388912/3492006 for Sony
3729596 1973 Toth "Hermut Wilms in Lubeck, Germany" Pickup or Cutting Device with two moving coils
3731009 1973 Watanabe Toshiba Capacitive Transducer directly coupled to cantilever (Electret Condenser type cartridge)
3745263 1973 Kawakami NA Electro-static transducers (condenser type pickup) His previous patent 3649775 was assigned to Sony.
3761647 1973 Nemoto Audio Technica V shape IM cartridges (Japan patent application. 43/57408 year 1968)
3763335 1973 Morita Matsushita=Technics Idea for cartridge with magnet armature NSN
3770901 1973 Bauer Columbia Broadcasting System "Stereo-Quadraphonic Records. Also 3745242, 3784744, 3875338 about decoders, 3890466 about encoders"
3771797 1973 Braun NA Linear Tracking Guide with magnetic floating mechanism
3774918 1973 Shibata Victor Company of Japan (JVC) Stylus Tip (Shibata type) Suitable for 4 channel reproduction. Its line contact profile (a curve of large radius of curvature in its parts in contact with a record groove in a vertical section) is easy to be obtained: two planes cut off from cone.
3779563 1973 Irisawa NA Magnetic Device for Anti-skating (Two Crescent Magnets inside of Arm Pillar)
3786193 1974 Tsurushima Sony Four Channel Decoder with Variable Mixing of the Output Channels. Also 3883692 In 1968 Sony started a joint company CBS-Sony Record Company in Japan.
3787622 1974 Itoh Sansui "Quadrasonic Sound System for Two Channel Transmissions. Matrix 4 channel surround. Also RE29171(3777076), 3783192, 3825684, 3836715, 3887770, 3892918, 3934086, 3952157, 3982069, 4021612 etc."
3813101 1974 Benz NA Pickup needle having a diamond tip soldered by a hard solder to a shaft
3829615 1974 Hiramatsu Mitsubishi Denki(Electric) Quaternary Stereophonic Sound Reproduction Apparatus.
3830459 1974 Strausfeld EMI Electrola in Germany Record Presses. Also 4141531
3846592 1974 Stanton 780/4DQ MI Cartridge for 4-channel groove reproduction
3850436 1974 Rabe Polyband Gesellschaft in Munich Method of cutting gramophone records: Pitch and Depth control in consideration of reproducing stylus profile
3871664 1975 Hughes "Diamagnetics, Inc." Phonograph Stylus (reproducing stylus improved from Shibata type)
3878342 1975 Gudmandsen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) Replaceable Stylus for Pickup
3904837 1975 Sugimoto Hitachi Magnetic Pickup Cartridge (disc-shaped moving magnet pivotally supported on the rear end of needle holder: one-point pivot and receptacle both made of hard jewel in order to have definitive fulcrum)
3918722 1975 Nakajima Sony Tone Arm Wand of Carbon Fibers.
3918723 1975 Nakajima Sony Cantilever made of Carbon fibers. Embodiment in XL-35 and XL-45 was carbon-clad aluminum cantilever
3923309 1975 Nakajima Sony Cartridge shell for phonograph pickup. Carbon-clad shell is based on another patent 3957272 invented by Yasuda ans assigned to Sony: ""the carbonaceous fibers bonded together by a synthetic resin and secured to a metal cover plate by a suitable adhesive or by a heat-press.
3927887 1975 Otani Matsushita=Technics Record stylus. Stylus substrate having a surface coated with a film of silicon carbide or boron carbide thereon
3932087 1976 Lindell Toolex Alpha Aktiebolag (Sweden) [now ALPHA SWEDEN] "Arrangement in moulding presses with parted press tools for the production of hot-pressed plastic material products, especially grammophone records "
3941547 1976 Green "United Artists Music and Records Group, Inc." Phonograph record pressing die assembly
3944754 1976 Ishigaki Victor Company of Japan (JVC) Record disc recording system with signal amplitude controlled by stylus arm position. Signal amplitude limitting toward inner (softer operation than tracing simulators).
3948529 1976 Wittenberg "Pickering & Company, Inc." Phonograph Turntable Anti-skating Device
3951841 1976 Maier Discwasher Inc Phonograph record cleaning composition (see also 3965520 Brush and cleaning composition for phonograph records)
3952171 1976 Dieter Micro-Acoustics Corporation Stereo phonograph cartridge (stereo piezo-electric cartridge) Also 4326285-1982 (new design of damper)
3954273 1976 Shaper Empire Magnetic Cartridge. Magnetic rod within cantilever pipe, main magnet axial at the end of poles, other two magnets for flux balancing at side. Unique double dampers: cantilever suspension and inner magnet piece suspension inside cantilever.
3956598 1976 Kawakami Sony Moving coil pickup cartridge with diaphragm coupling
3958292 1976 Powell Milty Products Limited Roller for cleaning phonograph records (adhesive tape peeling off after use)
3960790 1976 Khanna RCA
3961797 1976 Tsukagoshi Pioneer Improvement of cantilever: an aluminum pipe whose periphery carries a porous vacuum vapor deposited beryllium layer
3963880 1976 Ikeda FR Moving coil-type cartridge (Non-magnetic bobbin) Japanese Patent Application S49-85387(Publication S51-014002)
3964752 1976 Charlin NA "Methods and devices for recording, engraving and reproducing modulated information in tetraphony: 2separate grooves 4 channels. His other patents 2437997,2458346,2488763&2506441about cinematograph and condensor. 1904408(1933) about Needle Securing Device for Talking Machine"
3966330 1976 Ridler Strathearn Audio Limited Phonograph record detecting arrangement (optical beam and sensor for size select)
3973777 1976 Guha "Avnet, Inc." "Cueing control. Dwipendra Nath Guha invented also 3949995(needle control-unique dynamic arm with two springs for side and down forces) & 4004816(programmer for record player) for Avnet, Inc in New York.. AVNET, the owner of importer ""British Industies Corp."" (B-I-C) needed their own products since Plessey of England (parent company of Garrard in this era) set up their own distribution of Garrard products in USA. Related patent 3973778 for belt-drive turntable assigned to Avnet."
3975025 1976 Obata Matsushita=Technics Pickup Cartridge (Piezoelectric)
3983335 1976 Nemoto Audio Technica MM cartridge with single rod magnet located tangential to cantilever.
3988024 1976 Watanabe Toshiba Flat DD Motor: a plurality of magnets provided on the inner surface of the turntable so as to be disposed in a state alternately opposite in polarity and a plurality of coils provided on a stationary substrate disposed to face said turntable to have an increased driving torque - see Fig.10
3989903 1976 Cooper Nippon Columbia (Denon) "Multi-directional sound signal recording and/or reproducing system with crosstalk compensation means. Also 3985978. Improved discrete 4 channel system named as UM system=UMX:""UNIVERSAL MATRIX""system compatible to CD-4, RM and SQ/QS and regular stereophonic disks for reproducing 4 channels. "
3991284 1976 Braun MM Cartridges with two magnets
3993315 1976 Sorensen B&O Automatic phonographs with liner tracking arms. Using photocell for controlling arms.
3997174 1976 Kawashima Sony Turntable Mat. The vibration-damping properties of the mat may be enhanced by providing solid particles which float in the viscous liquid. Also 4079946
3997817 1976 Secker Milty ZEROSTAT "Device for neutralizing the charge on statically-charged surfaces. British Patent GB1500492-1978
D251558 1977 Ikeda Infinity Tone Arm Design.(Design Patent). Ikeda Makoto designed another arm D257534(1980) with new counter weight system
4009885 1977 Pritchard Sonic Research Corp. Magnetic Pickup and Removable Stylus Assembly of Low Mass. Pritchard left ADC and started Sonic Research Corp. around 1975. Also 4067582 about stylus suspension
4011417 1977 Kageyama GLANZ "New type MM cartridge (coils fixed to the end of yoke) looking like mixture of MM, IM and MC"
4023130 1977 Ridle Strathearn Audio Limited Pivoted arm control arrangements. Electro-magnetic counterbalance and VTF system. This patent is also registered in Japan (S51-23702 in 1976) by Strathearn.
4031335 1977 Smit US Philips Stereo pick-up with casing serving as common pole piece. Also 4456984(1984)
4033591 1977 Ichikawa Ichikawa Hoseki Kabushiki Kaisha "Pick-up arm rotary pivot bearing structure (""One Point Cross Suspension System"")"
4033592 1977 Tokuta Victor Company of Japan (JVC) Record Disc Cutting Stylus (esp. for 4-channel record disc recording system)
4037060 1977 Uchida "Japan Piezo Co., Ltd (Azden)" "IM cartridge with both a rod-shaped armature and a disk-shaped armature (called as tri-pole armature): patented in Japan, Canada, GB, Germany and USA."
4038009 1977 Toull EMI Limited in UK Apparatus for the manufacture of disc records. Automated record press incorporated with trimming the flash around the edge of the disc. This contains good reference to previous patents in LP era. Also 4141538 for disc record press
4039194 1977 Nakagawa Matsushita=Technics "Auto changer. See also patent 3827697-1974 (reissue RE29730-1978) invented by Miyoshi about record player operating ""six cycles by rotating the index wheel until the number ""6"" appears on the viewing window"". "
4039195 1977 Iyeta Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) "Linear Tracking Arm with optical servo-drive. His another patent 4007939, 4083565, 4139200 etc."
4046386 1977 Gosling Strathearn Audio Limited Linear Tracking Arm with electric coils for sensors.
4047721 1977 Hermann Dual "Drive Device with Belt and Stepped Pulley. ""Vario Pulley"" for auto player. "
4053721 1977 Nishikawa Pioneer Piezoelectric type pickup cartridge for stereo with pressing and intermediate members for coupling
4054291 1977 Maeda Sony Turntable mat with rubber sucker discs.
4065188 1977 Ridler Strathearn Audio Limited Linear bearing for parallel tracking arm. Thin film of magnetic fluid lubricant material between the bearing surfaces
4072823 1978 Minamizono "Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name ""GLANZ"")" "Pickup cartridge called as ""Moving Flux""(see also 4011417). Unique construction having merit of MM/IM/MC. Also see Design patent D266504(1982) assigned to The Astatic Corporation (cartridge model MF200). Also 4123067 about unique stylus pivot suspension (embodied in model G-7 cartridge)"
4075418 1978 Nemoto Audio Technica Assembly of armature in continuation from 3761647: current AT clip-on stylus holders for VM stylus assembly
4079942 1978 Kunen Jazlowiecki; Edward A. Method of and apparatus for controlling turntable speed: proposing constant linear velocity of turntable as later CD player.
4079943 1978 Morita Matsushita=Technics Pickup arm device dynamically damped (silicon oil+spring incorporated in balance weight)
4085940 1978 Hoshimi Sony Automatic Player with repeat function (auto-return force is obtained by gear coupled to spindle motor). Also 4098512 & 4106775 by Takizawa assigned to Sony
4090039 1978 Mori Sony MC Cartridge: coils are wound in such a manner that the electric potentials generated in diametrically opposite coils are added together. Also related patent No. 4410975(1983) about improved damper with grooves for better separation between channels.
4093833 1978 Tsukamoto Satin cartridges Moving Coil Cartridge with magnetic means to affix stylus holder (Patent in Japan 15/7/1975: 50-86422) Also 4179589 about cantilever suspension
4093897 1978 Fujita Hitachi "Electric motor (Star-shaped flat driving coils to obtain constant torque=called as ""Unitorque motor"") Also 4109170 & 4260920 etc"
4101133 1978 Aoki Denon Tone Arm with Dynamic Damping Mechanism (Design Patent D253410 by Sasaki 1979 for DA-307).
4102536 1978 Clunis Minessota Mining & Manufacturing Company Phonograph Pickup Device (Magnetic Control of tone arm with coil and magnet)
4103116 1978 Mishima Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) Pickup Cartridge with Moving Magnet Armature
4103117 1978 Morinaga Trio Combination of MM/IM with two magnets
4105212 1978 Ogura Ogura Jewel Industry "Stylus (called as ""VITAL"") BTW: in 1971Ogura developed 4-channel stylus PM type different from Shibata(JVC). "
4105213 1978 Owaki Victor Company of Japan (JVC) Device for cutting a sound groove on a disc recording medium (a cutting stylus with non static electricity structure to avoid sticking the chip cuts to groove) Also 4212471(1980)
4109114 1978 Baer Marvin Glass & Associates "Programmable phonograph device detecting the bands (maybe first example using LED and photodetectors along cartridge), Also 4119844 for sensor builtin cartridge"
4113265 1978 Iyeta Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) Tone Arm with Dynamic Lateral Balancer and Damper
4113266 1978 Alexandrovich "Pickering & Company, Inc." Playback stylus for phonograph record stamper. Related patent 4153257 is for a turntable to enable playback of record matrices and stampers. The turntable rotates in the direction opposite that of a conventional turntable and is provided with a tone arm carrying a stylus designed to ride the ridges of the stamper. Also 4113267 invented by Wittenberg and assigned to Pickering
4117412 1978 "Holman Advent Corporation Phonograph preamplifier network with infrasonic cutoff response Also 4032885
4120742 1978 Asano JVC Capacitance type pickup stylus and method of producing same
4121837 1978 Tominari Onlife Research (Dynavector) "A device for damping vibrations of a tone arm. Eddy current damper and dynamic mechanical damper are applied on the main arm of DV-505 while additional eddy current damper for sub arm as indicated in Fig. 9 & 10 is omitted from actual models. Dr. Tominari (deceased in 2002) was professor in Tokyo Metropolitan University [servo technology], established Dynavector in 1977, also developing fuel injection for MIKUNI (carburetor maker) in Japan."
4124216 1978 Sorensen B&O Linear Tracking Player
4124782 1978 Schon AKG Sound pickup having plastic enveloped pole plate to pole rod junction. Also 4054758 for cartridge damper [AKG-TS-system: TS stands for Transversal Suspension]
4124783 1978 Nemoto Audio Technica Two moving coils. Actual embodiment is modified from this patent: first embodiment AT34 with 180degrees reverse location of coils while later models have V shape bobbins connected to the end of cantilever similar to their VM type.
4128909 1978 Kawabe Nagaoka Roller for cleaning phonograph records (Adhesive rubber roller washable after use)
4132935 1979 Gaus Braun Aktiengesellschaft Phonograph turntable control system (for auto player incorporating electronic anti-skating etc). Also 4158459 for the arm weight device to provide a low profile pick-up arm. Also 4266783:Control mechanisms for pick-up arms of record players
4135086 1979 Baba Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) Automatic record player of linear tracking pickup arm type (using optical sensor devices)
4138121 1979 Nakajima Sony Electro-magnetic controlled arm. Embodied arm as ""BIOTRACER"" looks related to later patents 4184688, 4214756, 4214757, 4240641, 4241926 etc.
4138122 1979 Nakatsuka Ortofon MC cartridges with improved damper construction. Also 4220341(Pickup) & 4145582(MC cartridge with square magnetic armature) Nakatsuka visited Ortofon around 1976 and assisted in development of MC20 etc.
4140321 1979 Albert "Pickering & Company, Inc." "Phonograph cartridge replaceable stylus assembly. ""The tube is crimped along a circular crimp line engaging the damper intermediate the forward and rear edges with the portions of the damper that do not engage the crimp also being free of the tube""."
4143248 1979 Broeksema US Philips High-Fidelity Tone Arm
4151998 1979 Kurtin Discwasher Inc Phonograph tone arm and cartridge damping system
4157460 1979 Bottali CBS Apparatus for cutting audio disks: references to patents by SCULLY with WESTREX/TELDEC with NEUMANN etc.
4161631 1979 Matsuda Denon Compact MC Cartridge without magnet pole in front of coils which are driven by coaxial ring magnet. Any yoke for producing parallel magnetic field as in the prior art is not required and the pickup can be constructed quite compactly in the cantilever support member.
4167026 1979 Sambe Aiwa Apparatus for recording on tape from a phonograph record (Phonograph-Tape synchro Mechanism) similar to patent by Sony 3906169(1975). Synchro function was popular in '80s.
4170361 1979 Zwicky Willi Studer (REVOX) Bearing arrangement: Magnetic control of arm by magnets (and/or coi? as shown in next patent 4170362)
4177360 1979 Fujimoto Sansui MM cartridges
4183537 1980 Nakatsuka Namiki Lateral pressure detector for use with a phonograph record player.
4185835 1980 Aikman SME Series III Tone Arms
4194744 1980 Groh Shure Phonograph pick-up transducer using a one-piece bearing and inertial damper fabricated from different materials
4199375 1980 Muller DISCOFILM? "Process for removing dust and grease from phonograph records. Similar US Patent No.4378597/4455636 were invented by Lion Corporation and embodied in Nagaoka/Jeweltone ""RECOPACK""."
4205856 1980 Hayashi Stax Industries "Pickup cartridge with sealing damper (called as ""tip damper"") to prevent entry of foreign matters such as moisture or dust into the cartridge casing. Electret condenser-type cartridge CP-Y is shown in Fig.1 though document refers to CP-X Condenser Pickup Cartridge. "
4209669 1980 Hayashi Denon "MM Cartridge with axial located (preferably hollow) coils without any yoke to prevent the generation of magnetic distortion by a yoke.
4209670 1980 Ono Victor Company of Japan (JVC) MC cartridges with printed coils. Also 4251695(1981) and 4374433(1983)
4211422 1980 Rangabe Zerostat Components Ltd Damping apparatus for damping the resonance of disc record tone arms. Also 4131284
4212471 1980 Nishiwaki Victor Company of Japan (JVC) Device for cutting a sound groove on a disc recording medium (anti-static diamond cutting stylus prevents cut chip from adhering to stylus and groove) Also 4105213(1978) by Owaki etc of JVC.
4218591 1980 Iwasawa NA Phonograph cartridge with very hard metal ceramic frame. Also 4344167 about shell and damping therefor
4220926 1980 Buckner Plessey Handel und Investments AG. Swiss Noise detector employing plural delay circuits. Garrard Music Recovery Module for supressing scratch noise upon playing records.
4221937 1980 Ikeda FR MI Cartridge
4230323 1980 Tsuji Sharp=OPTONICA Automatic (programmable) record player. This idea (nonrecorded section detection sensor =LED+optical sensor mounted on arm head) might be developed from earlier US Patent 4226425: Nonrecorded section detection in an automatic record. US Design Patent D265196-1982 shows RP-7100 with small modification.
4232869 1980 Wakabayashi Matsushita=Technics Damper made of an elastomer comprising a blend polymer of a silicone rubber polymer and polyisobutylene. TTDD=Technics Temperature Defense Damper
4233476 1980 Ikeda FR-7 MC Cartridge (bobbin-less coils & 4 pole magnets)
4237349 1980 Gudmandsen Ortofon "Compact moving-coil pickup of low weight and high quality [square moving coil and ring magnet]. Also 4310917 about damping device consisting of a disc shaped inertia body clamped between two rubber pads - named by Ortofon as ""Wide Range Damping"" system."
4238646 1980 Aizawa Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) "MC Cartridge (V/H matrix, H-V matrix). "
4249747 1981 Bauer Phonograph pick-up cartridge
4251080 1981 Sumachev Korvet "Tone arm: A viscous dynamic damping subassembly is designed to eliminate the main resonance frequency of the tone arm and includes a hollow casing rigidly affixed to the lever. ""Korvet""arm by A. Likhnitsky is related to this patent."
4256312 1981 Ikeda R & D Office Makoto Ltd Turn table device for record players (Air Floating Platter for belt drive system)
4257615 1981 Morch Moerch UP-4 "Tone Arm. ""The suspension of the tone arm is of the dual-bearing type where the vertical movement of the arm takes place around two bearings, characterized in that the mid-point between said bearings is placed eccentrically with respect to the center of gravity of the said separate element/s and which bearings are attached on one side to the said element/s, and between said two bearings a vertical pin, which is also attached to said elements, is positioned and in combination being surrounded by damping fluid in a well that is positioned in the non moveable part of the tone arm in the said cavity, surrounded by the element/s, and on their other side the above two bearings are attached to bearings or just one bearing comprising the horizontal movement of the tone arm""."
4261580 1981 Tsukagoshi Pioneer "Arm pipe for record player tonearms (a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic resin and graphite powder). Also 4269416: Head shell for record player tonearms (a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic resin and graphite powder)
4263483 1981 Obata Matsushita=Technics MC Cartridge with core-less twin-ring coils
4264078 1981 Hattori Koshin Denki Pickup Arm with Magnetic Application on Anti-skating & VTF
4270758 1981 Kehl Shure "Lever operated stylus guard. This paper contains reference to previous patents, but first two references are Design patents assigned to Shure in 1975 (not 1875)!"
4275888 1981 Anderson Shure Stabilizing and static removing attachment for phonograph pickup cartridge. Also Design Patent D252628 by Wellwood and Deschamps
4276635 1981 Obata Matsushita=Technics T4P mounting device. Adaptor shell for connecting T4P cartridge to arm with SME type connector is shown. Also see 4571717(1986) assigned to Audio-Technica about T4P mounting adaptor for shell.
4277070 1981 Dinsdale Cranfield Institute of Technology Damping of arm/cartridge. Front End Damping Trough
4279691 1981 Aoki Matsushita=Technics Method of making boron cantilever (also 4212838, 4382454 and 4433408). Pioneer got similar patent 4254184 in 1981 about coating of cantilever. "
4281225 1981 Ito Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) MC cartridges (push-pull mode). Printed (photo-etching) aluminum-film coil on silicon plate.
4295277 1981 Dennessen Dennessen Electronics Stylus positioner tool with pointer for arm pivot
4305147 1981 Onishi Pioneer Tone arm damping device. Damping of both horizontal and vertical vibration forces utilizing a single damping mechanism around arm pivot assembly.
4312061 1982 Hayashi Denon Arm driving device (horizontal/vertical coils): DP-100M(1981) and DP-57L(1982)=DP-62L? DP-59L(1984) etc.
4317191 1982 Tatara Sony MC cartridge with replaceable stylus assembly
4323997 1982 Kuribayashi Pioneer "Linear-Tracking Pickup Arm Drive Assembly. A linear motor dictect-drive arm on two guide bars. Its unique jog dial ""REMOTE OPERATION/CONTROL KNOB"" was based on previous patents such as 4118039/4147365. Linear motor drive was shown also by Sony patent 4322840 (no embodiment?)"
4325016 1982 Takeuchi Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) Device for controlling pickup arm movement in linear tracking pickup arm apparatus. Design Patent D268028(1983) for PX-2(1979) is also adopted on PX-3(1981) with small modifications
4325132 1982 Kuehn Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC) Unitary phonograph cartridge and head assembly. Another patent No. 4165078 for Flip-up stylus protector with magnifying lens on it. Also 4340957
4326283 1982 Rensky Quality Audio Components Cartridge alignment system: this variation of Dennessen utilizes a sight line or sight ridge which is aimed at the pivot point for the tone arm instead of pointer.
4326285 1982 Dieter Micro-Acoustics Ltd Stereo phonograph cartridge. The elements were made of the piezoelectric material though quoted as electrets in commercial documents - maybe it is reasonable since its electrical equivalent circuit is similar to capacitance load. Also 4320492:Variable weight phonograph cartridge
4328573 1982 Kurtin NAD International in Germany "Precision phonocartridge interface (measuring and tuning adaptor between arm cable and phonoamp) In 1972, at a meeting in Europe, eight people representing companies in the USA, UK, France, Switzerland and Germany formed a HiFi company soon to be known as NAD (New Acoustic Dimension). "
4332050 1982 Okuda Hitachi Self-propelled record cleaner (also 4360906)Inventors working in Kyushu HITACHI Maxell so that two models were supplied from Lo-D(HITACHI) and Maxell(Battery brand of HITACHI)
4337533 1982 Ando Aiwa Front loading type record player
4345322 1982 Aizawa Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) "MM Cartridge (V/H matrix, H-V matrix) Also 4597071 by Ito etc assigned to Yamaha"
4346467 1982 Souther Souther Linear tracking tone arm (arm moves on carrige by mechanical gravity balance shift on the uneven parallel bars)
4351045 1982 Townshend EEI Alignment Gauge "Lateral Tracking Measuring/Alignment Tool for Arm (claim priority, application GB July 1979)"
4352176 1982 Itoh Matsushita=Technics "Electromagnetic pickup cartridge (low cost magnet without center hole can be applied, instead special magnet holder is used)"
4352178 1982 Kitamura Kitamura Cartridge Equalizr. Dynamic Lateral Balancer to be equipped additionally on the shell neck - funniest patent I ever see. It is based on the theory presented by Iyeta: US Patent 4113265: Tone pickup arm device keeping excellent dynamic lateral balance and damping effect.
4359768 1982 Abbagnaro CBS "Vertical tracking angle meter: Measuring instrument which extracts and directly displays the vertical tracking angle of a phonograph pickup during playback of a known test record signal, and which also has the capability of measuring and directly displaying tracing distortion"
4363705 1982 Hand "Capitol Records, Inc." "Passivating and silver removal method [in the processes of making Mother]. The term to ""passivate"" means to treat a metal surface so that a metallic coating can be applied to the treated surface and subsequently be removed therefrom. It is believed that the passivating aqueous solution of the present invention passivates a nickel surface by forming a conductive oxide layer on the surface. "
4364120 1982 Honma Audio-Technica MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly
4365325 1982 Van Den Hul Van Den Hul Stylus for Quadraphonic Reproducers (Also 4416005-1983)
4367544 1983 Fidi AKG Electromagnetic transducers for converting mechanically acoustic events into alternating voltages. [MI/IM cartridge using ring magnet similar to Ortofon VMS] Also 4512009 new damper developed further from 4054758 though actual embodiment looks much simplified without second elastic element.
4367546 1983 Shibata Victor Company of Japan (JVC) Vacuum Turntable System for a Record Player (also 4234195 & 4493072): Optional Suction Pump Unit=""Turbo-Disk-Stabiliser""This idea itself is not new (see 4065135-1977 by Doughty, 3608909-1971 by Rabinow)"
4368527 1983 Goldstein NA Phonograph cartridge alignment. New alignment template.
4368528 1983 Sakano Sony MM Cartridge with delta-shaped jointless laminated core
4370371 1983 Nakahira Hohyu Rubber Rubber disc for a record player turntable
4376304 1983 Uchida Azden MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly. Also 4272652
4383410 1983 Itoh Matsushita=Technics "Pickup Cartridge of Movable Magnet Type. Also 4140886, 4353125 etc"
4385375 1983 Okura Pioneer MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly
4395920 1983 Kurtin Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC) Digital stylus force gauge
4397012 1983 Burundukov NA Electrodynamic pickup cartridge having simplified coil structure Also 4237347 (Two Moving Magnets)
4397013 1983 Shiomi etc Kyocera/Nagaoka Cantilever and phonograph pickup cartridge. Cantilever pipe of a ceramic material composed mainly of aluminum oxide
4403880 1983 Sandors California Sounds Ltd Record cleaner/conditioner using pad with container for volatile liquid: this is interesting because of criticism on prior arts
4409526 1983 Yamauchi Sony Brushless DC Motor: common flat motor with two phase stator windings (4 coils) and 2 hall elements and 8 poles rotor magnet Also 4135120(1979)&4220879(1980) invented by Hosimi and assigned to Sony
4416003 1983 Suzuki Sharp=OPTONICA "Both Sides Play Vertical Linear Tracking Player (two tonearms with two MM cartidges, one on each side of the record to allow the continuous playback of both sides)."
4416006 1983 Kitamura "(no assignment, but the inventors are mainly engineers of JVC)" Record disc playing apparatus having the function for correcting rotational irregularities due to record disc eccentricity. Angular velocity is controlled electrically in accordance with the eccentric ratio.
4423499 1983 Peschel AKG Pickup adjusting equipment. The tool was supplied together with cartridge model P25MD series.
4434483 1983 Vinogradov NA "Tone arm. Modified one-point bearing comprising of uni-pivot and ball bearing. A vertical pivot attached to one of the bases and cooperating with a spherical thrust bearing in the other base, and a ball making contact with one of the bases and cooperating with a guiding element in the other base."
4434484 1984 Iwata Audio-Technica Stabilizer for record discs: detachably placed on the turntable of a record player to hold a record disc placed thereon by attraction (by vacuum pump).
4437179 1984 Nishikawa Pioneer MC cartridge: 4magnets and 6 poles (accurate alignment of stylus unit on cartridge body). Also 4327433 & 4519063
4441177 1984 Groh Shure "Stylus protection mechanism: called as ""Side guard stylus protection system"""
4441178 1984 Kobayashi Nakamichi Method of correcting a position of a disk record on a turntable (Disk Centre Searching Mechanism)
4453243 1984 Tanaka Sony Linear tracking arm drive apparatus
4455641 1984 Sliski "Dennesen Electrostatics, Inc. " Linear Tracking System with pneumatic guideway
4468627 1984 Fushiki Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) RIAA Equalizer circuit. An equalizer circuit is provided which has a high D.C. stability without degrading the equalization characteristic.
4470020 1984 Mohr NA Virtual ground preamplifier for magnetic phono cartridge (current amplifying method applied on magnetic cartridges)
4473897 1984 Seeler Shure Tubular beryllium phonograph needleshank and method of formation
4475185 1984 Fujio Sansui Electric Record player with vibration cancellation mechanism. Previous Patent 4425638 for Dual Turntable for cancellation.!
4479281 1984 Mikutowski NA Method and apparatus for cleaning phonograph records?Vacuum Cleaning)
4484320 1984 Redlich TELDEC "Apparatus and Method for cutting information into a metallic record carrier. Also 4538256, 4248438 & 4531207, 4748612(diamond stylus)"
4488284 1984 Aoki Denon MC cartridge (Twin dampers and yoke-less magnet circuit). Further development from earlier patent 4455639 by Aoki and 4161631by Matsuda etc.
4490816 1984 Kehl Shure Tonearm alignment gauge
"D279,775" 1985 Nemoto Audio Technica "Minimum-sized Portable (Battery Operated) Player. Design Patent D279755. There were similar products from Sony: battery operated ""Flamingo""PS-F9 with Dynamic Balanced Linear Tracking Arm & FM transmitter, mini-compo ""Heli Player""PS-Q7&9 with FM transmitter around 1982."
4494227 1985 Vroonhoven US Philips Stereo phono pick-up and/or cutter
4509159 1985 Alexandrovich "Pickering & Company, Inc." Aluminum-aluminum oxide stylus arm (=cantilever). The patent document is interesting only for other references in the past.
4512008 1985 Yokoyama Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) "Small signal amplifying circuit for a pickup cartridge: first transistor incorporated within shell as ""Satellite"" for head amplifier. "
4521877 1985 Shimamoto Namiki Precision Jewel Stylus (Micro-ridge etc)
4528653 1985 Asano Sony Record player with automatic music search function
4536865 1985 Kenmotu Pioneer Bookshelf type player (turntable sliding in and out from case) see also
4538255 1985 Kern Georg Neumann GmbH Method of and system for cutting a phonograph record with two-channel modulation. A system for controlling the mean depth and spacing of V-grooves
4547819 1985 Meitner "Amber Electro Design, Inc. (Montreal, CA) " Magnetic pickup preamplifier
4547874 1985 Mori Sony Moving coil type cartridge mounted on cantilever within central opening of ring magnet
4558443 1985 Nakamura Tekudaiya Kabushiki Kaisha in Japan Moving coil type pickup cartridge
4570253 1986 Firebaugh Well-Tempered Tone Arm having a bifilar flexible ligament suspension for vertical and lateral displacement
4580257 1986 Kikuchi Pioneer Dual drive system for phono pickup arm (programmed music selection). The prior art reference No. 4230324 is incorrect. Correct number should be 4230323-1980 (SHARP). Optical music selection idea was invented in 60s: for example 3368080-1968(CITIZEN). Seemingly this application originated from printing machine.
4580258 1986 Dinsdale "Cranfield Institute of Technology/Elite Townshed, Ltd." Auto-offsetting apparatus on arm (programmed slot)
4628500 1986 Thigpen Eminent Technology Air bearing straight line tracking phonograph tonearm
4644517 1987 Tominari Dynavector Audio signal amplifier for an electromagnetic phono cartridge (PU>Step-down Transformer>Current-voltage conversion stage)
4675859 1987 Fletcher Sumiko MC with intensified field focus: 1) a rear magnet and a front magnet mounted in an axially juxtaposed manner within a support sleeve so as to define therewith a magnetic field chamber 2) higher output is achieved without increasing the number of windings and thereby adversely affecting the moving mass of the stylus assembly. IMO: Sumiko high output MC cartridges such as Blue Point etc adopt conventional design (one magnet and two yokes) while original patented design was yoke-less=direct.
4681527 1987 Amory Pathe-Marconi EMI SA in France "Apparatus for the injection moulding of disc records. Two matrices, each bearing modulation to form a microgroove disc record, are fixed to half-moulds by means of sleeves, having first and second fixing flanges which extend into the gap between the matrices."
4686664 1987 Graham Model 1.5 etc Tone Arm Assembly (unique alignment method). His previous patent 4587646(1986?about same uni-pivot arm
4729146 1988 Barr NA Kit for cleaning phonograph records (attachment on homeuse vacuum cleaner)
4792938 1988 Firebaugh Well-Tempered Low-noise bearing for phonograph turntables and the like
4802081 1989 Otzipka US Philips Elongated phonograph pick-up head with snap-together construction. Also 4534022. ELM (Extra Light Mass 3g) series cartridges appeared around 1984
4855989 1989 Gyger NA Gyger Stylus Geometry
4870631 1989 Stoddard "Finial Technology, Inc." "Laser Turntable. Also 4972344(1990) for Dual Beam Optical Turntable. There were many attempts before Stoddard - see US Patent 3,325,603(1963) by Rabinow etc: ""Stereo Record Player Using Optical Means Separate from The Tone Arm"" and US Patent 3,992,593(1976) by Heine: ""Disc phonograph record playback by laser generated diffraction pattern"" etc."
4884262 1989 Winfeld Ortofon Magnetic system for a stereo pick-up with a movable coil
5003522 1991 Dolby Dolby Disc reproducing system for compensating mechanical imperfections: his previous patent 4918678 contains many related references (full history of vain attempts to reduce distortions caused by warp etc). Also 4755979(1988)
5781525 1998 Neulinger NA Record optimizer system and method of utilization
6185179 2001 Mohrin NA Revival of Edison-type cylinder!!! [Cylinder instead of stylus vibrates as resonator/microphone]
6469974 2002 Kaneko Vestax Tone arm (straight arm without offset angle for DJ play).
6661767 2003 Warden "Numark Industries, LLC" Tone arm assembly with interchangeable tone arm tube. Design Patent No. D433011(2000). See also straight non-offset arm D494158(2004) for disc jockey turntable D491915(2004)
6818815 2004 Cohen Stanton Magnetics Phonograph turntable with MIDI output
6829207 2004 Singer "Convolve, Inc." Method for reconstruction of phonograph records from physical measurement. Also 7330414(2008)
7042811 2006 Phelps Syracuse University "Frictionless, non-destructive playback system for cylinder recordings [Laser pickup for cylinder or a 33, 45 or 78 RPM record]"
7086071 2006 Schroeder Model DPS/2/Reference etc Spring-suspension magnetically stabilized pick-up arm. Model 1& TA-1 have modification around suspension of arm (two strings & flat magnets)
7106685 2006 Calaio NA Turntable with vertically adjustable platter. VTA between the stylus of the cartridge and the record can be easily adjusted without tweaking or touching the tone arm
7345975 2008 Haber The Regents of the University of California "Metrological digital audio reconstruction. Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis."
7382713 2008 Graham Phantom series "Method and apparatus for tone arm magnetic stabilization and damping system: satisfies the need for achieving neutral balance and stabilization for unipivot tone arm assemblies including antiskating mechanism using pulley belt tension.
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